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Defining, Teaching, & Operationalizing Structural Competency 

• Metzl J, & Hansen H. (2014). “Structural competency: Theorizing a new medical engagement with stigma and inequality.” Social Science and Medicine. 

• Neff J, Knight KR, Satterwhite S, Nelson N, Matthews J, & Holmes SM. (2017). “Teaching Structure: A Qualitative Evaluation of a Structural Competency Training for Resident Physicians.” Journal of General Internal Medicine. 

• Bourgois P, Holmes SM, Sue K, & Quesada J. (2017). “Structural Vulnerability: Operationalizing the Concept to Address Health Disparities in Clinical Care.” Academic Medicine, 92(3): 299-307. 

The Need for Structural Competency in Healthcare Education 

• Bourgois P, & Schonberg J. (2009). Male Love. In, Righteous Dopefiend (Chapter 7). Berkeley: University of California Press. 

• Farmer PE, Nizeye B, Stulac S, & Keshavjee S. (2006). “Structural Violence & Clinical Medicine.” Public Library of Science Medicine. 

• Holmes S. (2006). “An Ethnographic Study of the Social Context of Migrant Health in the US.” Social Science and Medicine, 3(10). 

• Rivkin-Fish M. (2011). “Learning the Moral Economy of Commodified Health Care: ‘Community Education,’ Failed Consumers, and the Shaping of Ethical Clinician-Citizens.” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 35(2): 183-205. 

Limitations of Behavioral, “Cultural,” & Biological Framing of Health Disparities 

• Baum F, & Fisher M. (2014). “Why Behavioral Health Promotion Endures Despite Its Failure to Reduce Health Inequities.” Sociology of Health and Illness, 36(2): 213-225. 

• Gregg J, & Saha S. (2006). “Losing Culture on the Way to Competence: The Use and Misuse of Culture in Medical Education.” Academic Medicine, 81(6): 542-546. 

• Hunt LM, Schneider S, & Comer B. (2004). “Should “acculturation” be a variable in health research? A critical review of research on US Hispanics.” Social Science & Medicine. 

• Jenks A. (2011). “From ‘Lists of Traits’ to ‘Open-Mindedness’: Emerging Issues in Cultural Competence Education.” Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 35(2): 209-231. 

• Kleinman & Benson. (2006). “Anthropology in the Clinic: The Problem of Cultural Competency and How to Fix It.” Public Library of Science Medicine. 

• Metzl JM, & Roberts DE. (2014). “Structural competency meets structural racism: race, politics, and the structure of medical knowledge.” Virtual Mentor, 16(9): 674-690. 

• Tervalon M & Murray-García J. “Cultural Humility Versus Cultural Competence.” Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved, 9(2): 117-123. 

Structural Violence & Structural Racism 

• Bourgois P. (2010). Recognizing Invisible Violence: A Thirty-Year Ethnographic Retrospective. In Rylko-Bauer B, Whiteford L, & Farmer P (Eds.) Global Health in Times of Violence (17-40). Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research Press. 

• Coates TN. (June 2014). The Case for Reparations. The Atlantic. 

• Crenshaw K. (1989). “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum. 

• Farmer P. (1996). “On Suffering and Structural Violence: A View from Below.” Daedalus, 125(1): 261-283. 

• Holmes, SM. (2013). Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies. University of California Press. 

• Knight, KR. (2015). addicted.pregnant.poor. Duke University Press. 

• West C. (1993). The Pitfalls of Racial Reasoning. In Race Matters (Chapter 2) Boston: Beacon Press. 

Foundational Social Theory & Structural Analyses of Healthcare 

• Brown W. (2006). “American nightmare: neoliberalism, neoconservatism, and de- democratization.” Political theory, 34(6): 690-714. 

• Fanon F. (1965). Medicine and Colonialism. In A Dying Colonialism (121-145) New York: Grove Press. 

• Navarro V. (1988). “Professional Dominance or Proletarianization?: Neither.” The Milbank Quarterly. 

• Wacquant LJ. (2006). Pierre Bourdieu. In Stones R (Ed.) Key Contemporary Thinkers (Chapter 16) London and New York: Macmillan. 

Writings on Teaching & Framing 

• Boler M. (2004). Teaching for Hope: The Ethics of Shattering World Views. In Liston D & Garrison J (Eds.) Teaching, Learning, and Loving (114-129) New York and London: Routledgefalmer.  

• Lakoff G. (2014). Framing 101. In Don’t Think of an Elephant! Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. (Chapter 1). 

• Wear D, & Aultman J. (2005). “The Limits of Narrative: Medical Student Resistance to Confronting Inequality and Oppression in Literature and Beyond.” Medical Education, 39(10): 1056-1064. 

• Willen S. (2013). “Confronting a ‘Big Huge Gaping Wound’: Emotion and Anxiety in a Cultural Sensitivity Course for Psychiatry Residents.” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 37(2): 253-276. 

Social Medicine: Examples of Healthcare-Based Responses to Harmful Social Structures 

• Breilh J. (2008). “Latin American critical (‘Social’) epidemiology: new settings for an old dream.” International Journal of Epidemiology 37(4): 745-750. 

• Geiger JH. (1984). Community health centers: health care as an instrument of social change. In Sidel VW & Sidel R (Eds.) Reforming Medicine: Lessons of the Last Quarter Century (11-32) New York: Pantheon Books. 

• Holmes, Stonington, & Green. (2014). “Locating global health in social medicine.” Global Public Health. 

• Messac L, Ciccarone D, Draine J, & Bourgois P. (2013). "The Good-Enough Science-and- Politics of Anthropological Collaboration with Evidence-Based Clinical Research: Four Ethnographic Case Studies." Social Science and Medicine, 99:176-186. 

• Nelson A. (2016). “The longue durée of Black Lives Matter.” American Journal of Public Health, 106(10): 1734–1737. 

• Phelan, Link, & Tehranifar. (2010). “Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Health Inequalities: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 

• Porter D. (2006). “How Did Social Medicine Evolve, and Where Is It Heading?” Public Library of Science Medicine, 10: 1667-1671. 

• Virchow R. (2006). “Report on the Typhus Epidemic in Upper Silesia.” American Journal of Public Health, 96(12): 2102-2105. 

• Waitzkin H. (2001). “Social medicine in Latin America: productivity and dangers facing the major national groups.” The Lancet. 

Reading Resouces
Defining, Teaching, & Operationanlzing Structural Competenc
Limitatios of Behavioral, "Cutural," & Biological Framing of Health Disparities
Structural Violence & Structural Racism
Foundational Social Theory & Structurl Analyses of Healthcare
Writings on Teaching & Framing
Social Medicine:Examples of Healthcare-Based Respnse to Harmful Social Structurs
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